Category Archives: Multiplicity


My emblem of multiplicity is a Sierpinski triangle. It is a fractal, or self-similar geometric figure, which was first described by Polish mathematician Waclaw Sierpinski in 1915. Basically, the pattern of triangles keeps replicating itself no matter how far you zoom in. The pattern continues into infinity.


I first learned about the Sierpinski triangle in my Java programming class, where I had to write a program that drew some type of fractal art. This project relates to Calvino’s encyclopedic novel, which is by definition incomplete, not because it is unfinished, but because it extends into infinity. Fractals such as the Sierpinski triangle are a good visual example of this.

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In the novel Sophie’s World by Jostein Gaarder, Sophie learns about the Greek philosopher Democritus’s theory of atoms by playing with LEGOS. She realizes she can create an infinite number of objects from a finite set of building blocks. Further, the blocks themselves cannot be broken down into smaller parts, just like atoms.

LEGOS, like atoms, can teach us a lot about multiplicity. The universe is made of just a few basic elements, yet they combine in various ways to create stars, water, plants, animals, entire worlds. The universe has not exhausted itself; it continues creating and creating. We don’t know exactly how it began, nor do we know exactly how it will end. All we know is that we can learn about it during our lifetime. Our knowledge will be incomplete, like Calvino’s encyclopedic novel, but the quest for knowledge is a worthy end in itself, and a work of art.


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Lupton and Phillips state that “Modularity is a special kind of constraint. A module is a fixed element used within a larger system or structure. For example, a pixel is a module that builds a digital image. . . . A nine-by-nine grid of pixels can yield an infinite number of different typefaces. Likewise, a tiny handful of LEGO bricks contains an astonishing number of possible combinations. The endless variety of forms occurs, however, within the strict parameters of the system, which permits just one basic kind of connection.”


This relates to multiplicity in art because although humans are pretty much the same biologically, each human being has a different experience and attitude toward the world. This is what enables us to create such a stunning variety of art and literature; each of us has something unique to bring to the creative process, allowing for many facets of experience across one human “kind.”

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E-Lit Example

88 Constellations for Wittgenstein by David Clark possesses Calvino’s quality of multiplicity. Starting with a single subject (the biography of German philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein), Clark leaps off into digressions about tangential subjects. Connecting the dots between the stars to create constellations parallels connecting the disparate elements of 88 Constellations to create a mosaic of a single subject: Wittgenstein.


On the webpage, 88 Constellations is described as “a really well-made independent documentary, but one which swerves from seemingly normal biographical reportage into visual puns, fantastic associations, and quirky digressions.” This could well be the definition of Calvino’s encyclopedic novel: an attempt to capture all the knowledge of the universe in a single work of art.

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Calvino’s Multiplicity

In his memo on multiplicity, Calvino conceives of the contemporary novel as “an encyclopedia, a method of knowledge, a network of connections between the events, people and things of the world.” Recognizing the impossibility of completing such an exhaustive, all-encompassing work in the span of a single lifetime, Calvino acknowledges that these types of novels are unable to find an ending. Additionally, these works give rise to a multitude of different interpretations, which may all be valid. However, Calvino asserts that the future of literature lies in these overambitious projects, which attempt to “weave together” all the different forms of knowledge into one vision of the world.

While this type of literature is incomplete by definition, it is also constantly evolving: as we learn more about the world, so we must attempt to assimilate this information into our unified vision of the world. By reading (or writing) the encyclopedic novel, we ourselves become part of the encyclopedia which is the universe.

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When I think of Calvino’s description of the encyclopedic novel, the first thing that comes to mind is The Rings of Saturn by W. G. Sebald. The narrator, who both is and isn’t Sebald, goes on an extended walking trip through East Anglia. As he journeys through the landscape, he shares his musings on the various country houses and failing seaside towns he passes through. He draws analogies from sources as diverse as Chinese history, the biology of silkworms, Renaissance medicine, and the writings of Joseph Conrad. All these disparate topics cohere into a mosaic of Sebald’s own melancholy; each example ultimately relates back to his preoccupation with death.


This picture is of the skull of Thomas Brown, a 17th century English doctor whose remains are kept in the museum of a hospital Sebald visits at the beginning of the book. The photographs are all Sebald’s; they serve as touchstones for his multifaceted writing. To me, it symbolizes the multiplicity of Sebald’s novel: he starts with something as simple as a skull, and from there, he encompasses all the tragedy of the human experience.

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